http://devportalbackend.niftygateway.com/cheap-zithromax-500mg-brand-name.php Botalov, D. Smyshlyaev, A. Recovery of rare earth elements from phosphogypsum. Lithium recovery from spent Li-ion batteries using coconut shell activated carbon. Waste Management , 79 , Engineering , 4 3 , Sabah M. Abdelbasir, Saad S. Hassan, Ayman H. Kamel, Rania Seif El-Nasr. Status of electronic waste recycling techniques: a review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research , 25 17 , Selective recovery of indium from scrap LCD panels using macroporous resins. Rene, Vincenzo Belgiorno, Piet N. Bioleaching of metals from WEEE shredding dust. Journal of Environmental Management , , Ehab AlShamaileh, Aiman E.
Al-Rawajfeh, Mohammad Alrbaihat. The Open Agriculture Journal , 12 1 , Biao Hu, Wenlong Hui. Lead recovery from waste CRT funnel glass by high-temperature melting process. Jang Won Kim, Albert S.
En masse pyrolysis of flexible printed circuit board wastes quantitatively yielding environmental resources. Maxim N. Temnikov, Anton A. Anisimov, Pavel V. Zhemchugov, Dmitry N. Kholodkov, Alexander S. Goloveshkin, Alexander V. Naumkin, Sergey M. Chistovalov, Dimitris Katsoulis, Aziz M. Mechanochemistry — a new powerful green approach to the direct synthesis of alkoxysilanes. Green Chemistry , 20 9 , An environmentally friendly ball milling process for recovery of valuable metals from e-waste scraps. Waste Management , 68 , Chiang, Jinhui Li.
Recovery of rare and precious metals from urban mines—A review. Extraction of lead from waste CRT funnel glass by generating lead sulfide — An approach for electronic waste management. Waste Management , 67 , Mechanochemical mechanism of rapid dechlorination of hexachlorobenzene. Examining environmental management of e-waste: China's experience and lessons.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews , 72 , Effects of mechanical activation on the kinetics of terbium leaching from waste phosphors using hydrochloric acid. Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Postconsumer waste, industrial scrap, and unwanted by-products from manufacturing operations should not be viewed as wastes. Rather, they are raw materials that are often significantly underused.
One of the research challenges of the emerging discipline of industrial ecology will be to identify productive uses for materials that are currently regarded as wastes, and one of the first steps in meeting this challenge will be to understand the nature of industrial and postconsumer wastes. More than 12 billion tons of industrial waste wet basis are generated annually in the United States Allen and Jain, ; U. Municipal solid waste, which includes postconsumer wastes, is generated at a rate of 0.
When these material flows are compared with the annual output of 0. While these comparisons between waste mass and the mass of commodity products make apparent the magnitude of industrial wastes, considering mass flows alone can be somewhat misleading. The extent to which industrial wastes could serve as raw materials depends not only on the mass of the waste stream, but also on the concentration of resources in the wastes. As shown in Figure 1 , the value of a resource is proportional to the level of dilution at which it is present in the raw material.
Resources that are present at very low concentration can be recovered only at high cost, while resources present at high concentration can be recovered economically. The primary goals of this paper will be to evaluate the flow rates and concentrations of valuable resources in waste streams and to determine the. The Sherwood plot: Selling prices of materials correlate with their degree of dilution in the initial matrix from which they are being separated. Note that the horizontal axis shows increasing dilution, or decreasing concentration, in the initial matrix. We will begin with a brief examination of the total quantities of material circulating through the waste cycles.
We will then focus on a series of metals, tracking their flows as wastes and comparing the waste mass and concentration level of recycled wastes, discarded wastes, and virgin raw materials. Mapping the flows of more than 12 billion tons of industrial and postconsumer waste is a challenging task. Part of the challenge is integrating information from many diverse sources of data. For example, more than a dozen national sources of data on industrial wastes are available Eisenhauer and Cordes, , but each covers only a portion of industrial waste generation.
Each was collected over a different time period and each considers a different subset of waste generators. Despite these difficulties, each of the data sources provides a unique perspective on industrial waste streams and can be useful. The main focus in this paper will be on just a few of these inventories, most notably the National Hazardous Waste Survey and, to a much lesser extent, the Toxic Release Inventory and.
While the TRI data are useful for profiling the releases of specific chemicals, they provide little information on the total waste stream. In contrast, the biennial survey of generators and the biennial survey of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities collected under the RCRA provide data on total waste mass but little data beyond loosely defined waste categories on the composition of the waste streams. This data base, which is called the National Hazardous Waste Survey, combines detailed data on waste composition and data on bulk waste stream properties.
It has two basic components, a generator Survey focusing on waste characterization and a survey of treatment, storage, disposal, and recycling TSDR facilities focusing on waste treatment and disposal. It shows the flow patterns and approximate flow rates of industrial hazardous waste streams.
The total mass flow rate of all streams represented in the National Hazardous Waste Survey is approximately 0. Therefore the data represent only about percent of the total flow rate of industrial wastes. Even though just a small fraction of industrial wastes is represented, the excluded wastes are primarily from a limited group of industries: mining, pulp and paper manufacturing, electrical power generation, and petroleum production.
So, the National Hazardous Waste Survey can begin to provide a picture of the flow rates and compositions of waste streams. It is far from comprehensive and omits some major sectors of the economy that generate substantial wastes, but it represents some of the best information available on waste stream composition.
Figure 2 reports the flow rates of hazardous waste streams generated by U. As indicated in Figure 2 , a small fraction of solvent, metal, and other wastes, less than 1 percent of total waste mass generated, flows through recycling loops. Most of this stream is water with a small percentage of nonaqueous contaminants; hence the mass of the chemically hazardous component of this stream is within an order of magnitude of the. While an examination of total waste flows is a necessary first step in assessing the use of waste streams as raw materials, total mass is not a good indicator of the potential value of waste streams.
Instead, the concentration and mass flow rates of valuable resources in the waste streams will be the most important evaluation criteria. Unfortunately, reliable composition data are not generally available for waste streams, so it is not always possible to evaluate the potential for recycling.
One set of materials for which waste composition data are available is metals. The next two sections will review the mass flow rates and concentration distributions of selected metals in industrial waste streams. As a first step in evaluating the potential of industrial wastes for use as raw materials, we will consider the flows of three metals—cadmium, chromium, and lead.
Figures 3 , 4 , and 5 report the amount of cadmium, chromium, and lead sent to major industrial waste management operations. For cadmium and chromium, only a small fraction of the material is recovered.
In the case of cadmium, approximately 1, out-of a possible 16, tons were sent to recovery operations in In contrast, a major portion of lead generated as industrial wastes , out of , tons is sent to metal recovery. Recycling is feasible for many lead-containing streams because an efficient collection and reprocessing system is in place for used automotive storage batteries. With such extensive recycling of lead, it should come as no surprise that secondary nonferrous metal processing Standard Industrial Classification [SIC] code , which is largely lead battery recycling, is the dominant source of lead wastes Figure 6.
They are merely a part, albeit a major part, of the total waste stream flow. A second major component of waste stream flows is municipal solid waste. The total mass flow of municipal solid waste is approximately 0.
Simple tonnage comparisons can be misleading, however. To assess the potential value of industrial hazardous waste and municipal solid wastes as sources of raw materials, it is necessary to compare the flows of specific materials. For example, according to the U. EPA , the dominant contributor to lead in the municipal solid waste MSW stream is storage batteries. Depending on rates of recycling, batteries contribute between , and , tons per year of lead to MSW.
Recent data EPA, indicate a 90 percent rate of recycling, resulting in , tons of waste out of the , tons of lead in used batteries. Other sources of lead in the MSW stream include consumer electronics estimated to be 60, tons , glass and ceramics 8, tons , plastics 4, tons , metals such as soldered cans. None of these other sources of waste result in any significant degree of lead recycling, largely because of the low concentrations of lead in the products. Analysis of these waste management data represents a first step in performing studies in industrial ecology. The next step is to integrate waste generation data with production data.
The Sherwood plot for virgin materials is provided by comparison.
Barely making it off Seed Planet Fifteen with their lives, Rake and the crew are content to hang out and lick their wounds for a while if it weren't for the fried wiring. Barely making it off Seed Planet Fifteen with their lives, Rake and the crew are content to hang out and lick their wounds for a while?if it weren?t for the fried.
Points lying above the Sherwood plot indicate that the metals in the waste streams are underused, that is, waste streams undergoing disposal are richer than typical virgin materials. Points lying below the Sherwood plot indicate that the waste streams are vigorously recycled. The results reveal that the concentrations of metal resources in many waste streams that are currently undergoing disposal are higher than for typical virgin resources. Thus, extensive waste trading could significantly reduce the quantity of waste requiring disposal.
Allen, D. Jain, eds. Special issue on industrial waste generation and management. Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Materials 9 1 Eisenhauer, J. Industrial waste databases: A simple roadmap. Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Materials 9 1 : National Research Council. Separation and Purification: Critical Needs and Opportunities.
Washington, D. Department of the Interior. Minerals Yearbook: , Metals and Minerals, Volume 1. Government Printing Office. Environmental Protection Agency. In the s, the first wave of environmental regulation targeted specific sources of pollutants. In the s, concern is focused not on the ends of pipes or the tops of smokestacks but on sweeping regional and global issues. This landmark volume explores the new industrial ecology, an emerging framework for making environmental factors an integral part of economic and business decision making.
Experts on this new frontier explore concepts and applications, including. The volume looks at negative and positive aspects of technology and addresses treatment of waste as a raw material.
This volume will be important to domestic and international policymakers, leaders in business and industry, environmental specialists, and engineers and designers. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.
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Looking for other ways to read this? No thanks. Suggested Citation: "Wastes as Raw Materials. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Wastes as Raw Materials. Page 70 Share Cite. Page 71 Share Cite. Page 72 Share Cite. Page 73 Share Cite. Page 74 Share Cite. Page 75 Share Cite. Page 76 Share Cite. Page 77 Share Cite. Department of the Interior Page 78 Share Cite. Page 79 Share Cite. Page 80 Share Cite. Page 81 Share Cite. Page 82 Share Cite.
This represents a steam to electricity ratio of around 20 to 1 and could be met by burning 0. This is a series with a great story and a good author. To begin, map out all of the activities that must occur in your organization from the time a required software feature is identified until the time the customer begins deriving value from that feature. Some of the commercial projects and research activities are include treatment of palm oil mill effluent [ 47 , 48 ], pyrolysis of oil palm shell [ 49 ], chars from oil palm waste [ 50 ], solid biofuels from biowastes [ 51 ], briquetting of palm fibre and shell [ 36 ], palm oil effluent as a source of bioenergy [ 52 ] ethanol fermentation from oil palm trunk [ 53 ] and converting oil palm trunks and cocoa wood to liquid fuels [ 37 ]. That's worse Sign in to comment Be respectful, keep it civil and stay on topic. After the fall of Rome, waste collection and municipal sanitation began a decline that lasted throughout the Middle Ages.
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